Forced Abortion, Gendercide, Genocide,
and the Abandonment of Widows under
China’s Two-Child Policy;
Campaigns to Empower Rural
Women and Girls
Statement by Reggie Littlejohn
Co-Hosted by Women’s Rights Without Frontiers and
The Women’s United Nations Reporting Network
March 18, 2021
The 2021 theme for the UNCSW is “Women’s full and effective participation and decision-making in public life, as well as the elimination of violence, for achieving gender equality and the empowerment of all women and girls.” This theme touches the very heart of the work of Women’s Rights Without Frontiers. Forced abortion, sterilization and infanticide constitute extreme violence against women and girls, and run directly counter to gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls. It is heartbreaking that, 26 years after the 1995 Beijing Conference on Women, these atrocities continue unabated in China.
I will speak about the continuation of forced abortion and gendercide under China’s One Child Policy, now its Two Child Policy, especially against Uyghur Muslim and other ethnic minority women living in Xinjiang today.
I will also speak about our campaigns to empower women and girls in rural China – Our Save a Girl Campaign, and our Save a Widow Campaign.
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China Has “Prevented” 400 Million Lives through the One (now Two) Child Policy; 336 million abortions, 196 Million sterilizations
The Chinese Communist Party has boasted that it has “prevented” over 400 million lives. In March 2013, it revealed it has conducted more than half a billion birth control procedures, including 336 million abortions and 196 million sterilizations.
One statistic the CCP never discloses is how many of these abortions were forced. Of these 336 million abortions, how many women were dragged out of their homes, strapped to tables and forced to abort babies that they want, up to the ninth month of pregnancy? How many women died as a result of these violent procedures? And of these 336 million abortions, how many were selectively aborted because they were girls?
Another statistic the CCP never discloses is how many of the 196 million sterilizations were forced? In April of 2010, in Puning City, Guangdong Province, family planning officials set out to sterilize 9,559 people. Those who refused were detained, along with their family members. According to credible reports, the CCP is forcibly sterilizing Uyghur women in Xinjiang to this day. Forced sterilization is a crime against humanity.
Such large statistics boggle the mind and mask the hundreds of millions of individual broken lives caused by this brutal Policy, such as Feng Jianmei, who was forcibly aborted at seven months in June 2012. In February 2013 she gave an interview in which she said that her family was still being harassed by authorities. She had to relocate 600 miles from her family to get away from the painful memories.
Forced abortion and involuntary sterilization are violence against women. Women’s Rights Without Frontiers calls upon President Xi Jinping to end this state-sponsored crime against humanity. China will not be free until the women of China are free.
2016 Revealed China’s Annual Abortion Statistic is not 13 but 23 Million
According to the 2015 State Department China Human Rights Country Report, released in 2016, the estimated number of abortions in China has increased from 13 to 23 million a year. In the past, the Chinese government reported 13 million abortions a year. The 2015 State Department Report noted that according to official Chinese sources, “The number of abortions performed is believed to be higher,” because the statistics in the past were collected only from registered medical institutions and did not include abortions at unregistered clinics. The State Department Report states that an “official [Chinese] news media outlet” has reported that “at least an additional 10 million chemically induced abortions were performed in non-governmental facilities.”
Adding abortions at official and unofficial facilities results in 23 million abortions a year. 23 million abortions a year comes to 63,013 abortions a day, 2625 abortions an hour, 43 per minute. The United States population is about 320 million, with about 1 million abortions per year. The population of China is almost 1.4 billion, with about 23 million abortions per year. Therefore China, with four times the population of the United States, has 23 times the number of abortions.
According to the State Department Report, the Chinese government did not provide a statistic on how many of these abortions were forced.
Forced Abortion Continues Under China’s Two-Child Policy
2016 began with the deceptive announcement by the Chinese Communist Party that it had “abandoned” or “scrapped” the One Child Policy. This language is misleading, as it gives the impression that forced abortion and coercive population control have ended in China. Nothing could be further from the truth. To the contrary, both forced abortion of unmarried women and of third children continues.
The 2020 Congressional-Executive Commission on China Report released in January, 2021, states that under the Two-Child Policy, “Chinese authorities continued to threaten or impose punishments, including heavy fines, job termination, and abortion, on families for illegal pregnancies and births.” Moreover, “During the 2020 reporting year, central government authorities continued to reject calls to end birth restrictions, despite population experts voicing demographic, economic, and human rights concerns over China’s population control policies.” CECC Report, Population Control section, p. 1.
Abuses committed by the CCP in furtherance of coercive population control “violate standards set forth in the 1995 Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action and the 1994 Programme of Action of the Cairo International Conference on Population Development.” CECC Report, Population Control section, p. 3.
The CECC Report explains that, although national family planning law prohibits officials from abrogating the “legitimate rights and interests” of citizens when enforcing family planning law, in fact, some provincial and local family planning regulations “continued to explicitly instruct officials to carry out abortions – often referred to as ‘remedial measures,’ (bujiu cuoshi) – for unsanctioned pregnancies.” CECC Report, Population Control section, p. 4.
A Radio Free Asia Report stated: “According to a June 8 report published on the official Xinjiang Web news site, an average of 8 million ‘extra’ pregnancies are aborted in China each year.” The term, “extra pregnancy” is a euphemism for an “illegal pregnancy.” Therefore, there are 8 million forced abortions in China each year.
Those who refuse to abort can suffer catastrophic financial consequences. For example, in 2019, when a Guangdong couple was pregnant with their third child, local population control officials pressured the wife 14 times to terminate the pregnancy. When she refused to abort, the couple was fined US $22,000, and both husband and wife were fired from their jobs.
In another incident, a couple, surnamed Zhong, in August of 2017 were forced to choose between an abortion at eight months or the loss of both of their government jobs. In a separate incident, He Liping was forced either to pay an impossible “terror fine” of $39,000 or face abortion at six months.
A May 4, 2016, BBC article entitled ‘Reinventing China’s Abortion Police,’ discusses a small collaborative project by Stanford University and Shaanxi Normal University to repurpose 69 Family Planning Officials — apparently on the assumption that they are no longer needed now that China has moved to a two-child policy. In this article, a Chinese Communist Party official unwittingly admits that coercive population control continues in China.
The article follows a Family Planning Official, Li Bo, who has been “reinvented” from “hunt[ing] down families suspected of violating the country’s draconian rules on how many children couples can have” into a rubber duckie squeezing, nursery rhyme singing “Chinese Father Christmas,” complete with “a bag full of toys and picture books.”
Has his job really been “reinvented,” or is he really a member of the womb police, masquerading as “Chinese Father Christmas” — the new face of China’s Family Planning Police? Buried deep in the article is the following account of the dark side of Li Bo’s job – an important piece of original reporting by the BBC:
Since the start of 2016, all Chinese couples have been allowed two children. But they can have no more than that unless they are from ethnic minorities – so Li Bo still spends some of his time working as a birth-control enforcer. In the town’s health clinic he is busy screening local women. All women of childbearing age have check-ups four times a year to ensure they’re healthy . . . and to see if they are pregnant. . . But Li is also a loyal Communist party official who believes the state knows best and society’s needs are greater than those of individuals. So he is matter-of-fact about the unpleasant task of telling women who couldn’t afford the fine to terminate their pregnancies. “People didn’t swear at us but they probably did behind our backs,” he says. “It’s natural because we were carrying out the law and they were breaking it so it is just like the clash between a policeman and a thief.” He adds that as long as restrictions are in place, such clashes will continue.
From these words, uttered by a Chinese Communist Family Planning Official, we learn that:
- Coercive pregnancy screening continues. Under the Two-Child Policy, Family Planning Police continue to screen women of child-bearing age for illegal pregnancy four times a year.
- Forced abortion continues. It is still illegal for single women to have babies in China, and for couples to have third children. It appears that some may be given an opportunity to pay a fine, but Li Bo tells “those who couldn’t afford the fine to terminate their pregnancies.” In other words, if a woman is illegally pregnant and cannot pay the fine – which can be as much as ten times her annual salary – she is forced to abort. Forced abortion, therefore, continues under the Two-Child Policy.
- Women pregnant without permission are considered criminals. Li Bo’s statement that women who are pregnant without permission “were breaking … [the law] so it is just like the clash between a policeman and a thief” demonstrates that such pregnancies are still considered illegal; and illegally pregnant women are regarded lawbreakers deserving of punishment, just like thieves.
- Forced abortion continues to cause unrest. Li Bo is correct in adding that “as long as restrictions are in place, such clashes will continue.” This statement is an admission that these clashes – often resulting in forced abortion – continue to this day, due to the two-child restrictions.
In a triumph of investigative journalism, on October 28, 2016, the BBC has released a Report, “China’s forbidden babies still an issue,” confirming that under the Two-Child Policy, forced abortion remains a threat for women pregnant with a third child.
In this Report, John Sudworth, the BBC’s Beijing Correspondent, interviews the father of a family in hiding because his wife has just given birth to their third child. The Report describes the man as “anxious and on edge, but still determined to tell his story.” The father told the BBC, “A third baby is not allowed, so we are renting a home away from our village. The local government carries out pregnancy examinations every three months. If we weren’t in hiding, they would have forced us to have an abortion.” (Emphasis added.)
The family was able to escape forced abortion by going into hiding, but when they come out, they will face a fine that could be as large as ten times their annual salary. “We don’t have the money for the fine. We just don’t know what to do,” the father told the BBC. He does not, however, regret his decision. “When I look at our new baby, I feel happy.”
Sudworth aimed to discover what the policy shift from one to two children per couple means in practice. “And what we have discovered,” he concludes, “suggests that the brutal machinery of enforcement is still in place along with the Chinese state’s insistence on the right of control over women’s wombs.”
This powerful report confirms what I have been saying all along: the new two-child policy will not end forced abortion. As blind activist Chen Guangcheng succinctly tweeted:
Under the Two-Child Policy, a woman’s body remains in the domain of the State. The entire infrastructure of coercion remains in force, with forced pregnancy examinations every three to six months.
Sudworth’s colleague then called several family planning centers and spoke to officials at random. She pretended to be pregnant with her third child and asked how she might keep it. All the officials stated that she would have to pay a fine. Such fines can reach ten times a person’s annual income. Inability to pay such fines has led many women to abort a child they would otherwise keep.
Beyond this, some of the officials went further, “engaging in coercive home visits with the aim of ‘persuading’ women to have abortions,” according to the BBC Report. One official told Sudworth’s colleague, “If you’re reported to us, then we’ll find you and we’ll persuade you not to give birth to that baby.” Another official said, “We’ll definitely find you and persuade you to do an abortion.” When asked if a woman could have a third child and then pay the fine, a third official stated, “No. You just can’t.”
The official’s statement, ‘If you’re reported to us . . .’ indicates that the system of informants remains under the two-child policy. ‘Illegally pregnant’ women have been reported to family planning police by their neighbors, co-workers, supervisors and people in their villages who are paid just to watch women to see if anyone looks pregnant. The official’s statement, ‘If you’re reported to us . . .’ indicates that this Orwellian system of informants remains in place under the two-child policy.
The statement by the officials, ‘. . . we’ll definitely find you and persuade you to do an abortion’ indicates that the Chinese government continues to conduct search and destroy missions, searching for ‘illegally pregnant’ women to destroy their desperately wanted babies. This happened to Feng Jianmei and Wujian, both of whom were dragged out of hiding and forcibly aborted. And what does the word ‘persuade’ mean here? Does it mean forcing a woman to ink her fingerprint on a consent document, like they did to Feng Jianmei?
I applaud the brilliant investigative journalism of John Sudworth and his colleague, and the courage of the BBC to publish his Report. It is extremely difficult to find people willing to speak to the western media about the continuation of forced abortion in China, because of harsh retaliation of the Chinese government against them personally and their families. The story of this courageous couple in hiding deserves to be told the world over. This is investigative reporting at its best.
Forced Abortion, Sterilization, Infanticide and Systematic Rape in Xinjiang
Several bombshell reports have been released in recent months, interviewing escapees from Xinjiang, including from the prison camps. They tell harrowing stories of forced abortion, involuntary sterilization, infanticide, and systemic rape carried out at the hands of the CCP. Here are some examples:
Gulnar Omirzakh is the impoverished wife of a detained vegetable trader. After the birth of their third child, the Chinese government ordered her to get an IUD. She complied. Nevertheless, two years later, four military officials came to her door and gave her three days to pay a fine of $2,685 for having more than two children. If she could not pay, she would join her husband and a million others, locked in internment camps for having “too many children.”
“God bequeaths children on you. To prevent people from having children is wrong,” said Omirzakh, an ethnic minority Kazakh. “They [the Chinese Communist government] want to destroy us as a people,” she stated, according to a compelling, investigative report by the Associated Press.
The Chinese Communist Party regards Omirzakh and people who share her views as religious extremists. CCP-backed scholars have identified “as a key obstacle [to the CCP’s goals in Xinjiang] the religious belief that ‘the fetus is a gift from God,’” according to the AP Report. The CCP locks up these religious believers, mostly Muslim, in internment camps, where they will receive political and religious re-education, in an attempt “to purge them of their faith.”
“The state [Chinese government] regularly subjects minority women to pregnancy checks, and forced intrauterine devices, sterilization and even abortion on hundreds of thousands,” the AP Report continues.
“Hundreds of thousands might be an understatement, because there are 15 million Turkic minorities in Xinjiang,” said German researcher Adrian Zenz, according to an ABC News analysis. Zenz released his own, heavily documented investigative report this week, published by the Jamestown Foundation think tank.
At the same time as it is forcibly aborting, sterilizing and detaining the Uyghur and Kazakh population, the CCP is encouraging births among the Han Chinese, including Han Chinese who have settled in Xinjiang. This practice may amount to “Han settler colonialism” or even cultural and ethnic genocide.
According to some of the ex-detainees interviewed by the AP:
- Women were given repeated health examinations in the internment camps. If they were found pregnant, they were forced to abort.
- A pregnant woman disappeared from the camp.
- Two others, terrified of the consequences of being pregnant in the camp, “got rid of their children on their own.”
- Another witness saw “a new mother, still leaking breast milk, who did not know what had happened to her infant.”
Forced sterilizations are also common:
Another former detainee said she was injected until she stopped having her period, and kicked repeatedly in the lower stomach during interrogations. She now can’t have children and often doubles over in pain, bleeding from her womb.
Those who have too many children are not only interned in camps, but their children can be taken away and placed in an orphanage.
Regarding forced sterilization, the Zenz Report states: “In 2018, 80 percent of all new IUD placements in China were performed in Xinjiang, despite the fact that the region only makes up 1.8 percent of the nation’s population.”
In early 2021, the use of systematic rape has come to light in China. A teacher forced to work in one of the Uyghur detention camps in Xinjiang Province recently told the BBC:
. . .“rape was common,” and the guards “picked the girls and young women they wanted and took them away.”
She described witnessing a harrowing public gang rape of a woman of just 20 or 21, who was brought before about 100 other detainees to make a forced confession.
“after that, in front of everyone, the police took turns to rape her,” [the teacher] said.
“While carrying out this test, they watched people closely and picked out anyone who resisted, clenched their fists, closed their eyes, or looked away, and took them for punishment.”
This excruciating account was reported in BBC’s recent investigative report, ‘Their goal is to destroy everyone’: Uighur camp detainees allege systematic rape.
This account of gang rape, after what appears to have been a Cultural Revolution-style struggle session to extract a forced confession, is the stuff of nightmares – except that according to accounts of several women who have escaped the camps in Xinjiang and spoken to the BBC, it is actually happening today, to real women in Xinjiang, at the savage hands of the Chinese Communist Party.
The CCP has also been credibly accused of forcibly aborting and sterilizing Uyghur women in the hundreds of thousands, as well as committing infanticide of full term babies born outside of the family planning limits. Secretary of State Pompeo, on his last day in office, officially labeled these and other human rights abuses by the CCP to be Genocide.
Conditions Giving Rise to Gendercide Continue Under the Two-Child Policy
The 2020 CECC Report states that sex-selective abortion continues in China to this day:
The government’s restrictive birth limit policies have also exacerbated China’s sex ratio imbalance, which reportedly fueled the demand for foreign women and resulted in human trafficking. Although Chinese authorities continued to implement a ban on “non-medically necessary sex determination and sex-selective abortion,” some people reportedly continued the practices in keeping with a traditional cultural preference for sons.
Moreover, as I had predicted, the sex-selective abortion of baby girls continues under the Two-Child Policy. In the countryside, it has long been the case that where the first child is a girl, a couple may have a second child. Many couples have regarded this as their last chance to have a boy, and have selectively aborted or abandoned their second daughters. Sex-selective abortions have overwhelmingly been late term, because a woman has to be five to six months pregnant to determine the gender by ultrasound. In addition, many women resist having these ultrasounds until very late in the pregnancy, because they resist being pressured, usually by their in-laws, into aborting their daughters.
In the summer of 2017, for example, it was reported that a Chinese woman from Anhui Province died after her husband pressured her into aborting four pregnancies in a year, because he wanted a son. The couple already had a four-year-old daughter. After the Two-Child Policy was instituted on January 1, 2016, they decided to have a second child, which the husband determined would be a boy. When the woman became ill because of the repeated abortions, her husband divorced her. She used the divorce settlement money (approximately U.S. $2500) to seek hospital treatment, but then died. Her husband did not visit her in the hospital and was planning on marrying another woman at the time of the report.
We predicted that the increasing availability of non-invasive pregnancy tests (NIPTs) and the modified two-child policy would result in an increase, not a decrease, in sex-selective abortion. Second daughters remain endangered. The combination of son preference with the Chinese government’s coercive low birth limit has created a culture that oppresses females. The ripple effects of these biases and destructive policies are seen both in the highly skewed birth ratio between male and female babies, and the widespread practice of sex trafficking of women and girls as prostitutes or forced brides.
China’s Abandoned Widows: Invisible Victims of the One Child Policy
China’s current elderly population is 241 million, 17.3 % of the nation’s total population, and rising. China’s elderly population is set to peak at nearly half a billion, or 35% of the total population, in 2050.
China has the highest female suicide rate in the world. According to a State Department Report, 590 women end their lives every day in China. China also has a skyrocketing rate of senior suicide, which has increased 500% in the past 20 years, as the One Child Policy has destroyed the family structure in China.
Sadly, senior suicide is on the rise. According to a report in the China Daily — a Chinese government–affiliated English language news outlet — the suicide rate of rural Chinese elderly has increased 500% in the past two decades, from 100 to 500 per 100,000. According to sociologist Liu Yanwu, who studied the issue for six years, “. . . I was more shocked by the lack of concern in villages where the elderly commit suicide . . . It seems that death is nothing to fear, and suicide is a normal, even a happy end.”
In the past, elders were venerated and cared for by their children and grandchildren. “Filial piety was valued in old China, but many elderly people in rural areas can no longer depend on their children as a result of the great economic and social changes over the past three decades,” continues Liu, “and the pension system fails to compensate . . . In China, farmers are vulnerable, and old farmers are the most vulnerable.”
Studies show that the elderly, especially elderly widows who traditionally have depended on their children to support them in old age, are becoming destitute and so desperate that they are committing suicide. They are the invisible victims of the demographic disaster caused by the One Child Policy and are in urgent need of help.
Women’s Rights Without Frontiers, through our “Save a Widow” Campaign, is extending help to elderly widows, to ease their suffering and give them dignity and new hope in the twilight season of their lives.
China’s Two-Child Policy is Social Control Masquerading as Population Control
The new two-child policy has failed to yield the baby boost expected to help allay the self-inflicted demographic disaster China inevitably faces. NBC News reported in January 2017 that the increase in births is substantially below the 20 million for which authorities had hoped. The 2020 CECC Report has confirmed that the birthrate continued to drop through 2020. Indeed, according to a BBC Report, China’s birthrate has fallen to its lowest level since the 1950s.
There are many reasons Chinese couples are reluctant to have a second child, such as the fact that raising a child in China is expensive.
In February 2017, China considered paying couples to have a second child. If China wants more babies so desperately that it is willing to pay couples to have a second child, then why is the government aborting single women and mothers of third children? Why doesn’t the government simply abandon all coercive birth limits?
It makes absolutely no demographic or economic sense for the Chinese government to continue to impose birth limitations of any sort whatsoever. China’s population problem is not that it has too many people. China’s problem is that it has too few young people and too few women.
Nevertheless, the Chinese Communist Party has not agreed to get out of the bedrooms of the Chinese people. Women’s bodies remain in the domain of the state. Forced abortion is not a choice. It is official government rape. We need to keep the international pressure on the Chinese Communist Party until all coercive population control is eradicated. Modifying the One Child Policy into a Two Child Policy has not ended forced abortion, forced sterilization or gendercide. Coercive population control in China does not need to be modified. It needs to be abolished.
It is impossible to celebrate any advancement of women’s rights anywhere on earth, when one out of five women in the world is subject to a regime that will strap them down to tables, thrust its hands into their wombs and rip their little ones out, as these women scream and plead for the lives of babies they desperately want. Gendercide – the sex selective abortion of baby girls – has been practiced for generations in China, and widows are destitute and abandoned in the countryside.
The women’s movement can claim no real victory so long as this scourge against women continues to blight the face of the earth. Chinese women cannot stand up against forced abortion without risking detention, for themselves and for their families. It is time for all women to rise up for our sisters in China and be a voice for the voiceless.
It is a travesty that China – one of the worst women’s rights offenders in the world — is being honored by hosting the 2022 Winter Olympics. I call on the international women’s rights community to join me in pressing to get the Olympics moved to a country that respects the rights of women.
The CCP’s brutal use of forced abortion, involuntary sterilization, rape, and internment of families who have ‘too many children’ is shocking, heartbreaking, and outrageous. The targeting of those who believe that children are a gift from God constitutes religious persecution as well. No legitimate government would perpetrate such monstrous barbarism.
The CCP must be held accountable. We applaud Secretary of State Mike Pompeo’s swift condemnation of these abhorrent practices and his determination that these and other practices constitute genocide. We appreciate Secretary Blinken’s agreement with that determination. We demand the end of all coercive population control in China. Forced abortion and sterilization constitute savage violence against women.
- We call on the UNCSW, the U.S. Government and all people of conscience to demand that China cease all coercive population control.
- The U.S. President should continue to utilize the Global Magnitsky Act to deny visas to perpetrators of forced abortion and freeze their US assets.
- Women’s Rights Without Frontiers has found our “Save a Girl” Campaign to be highly effective in saving baby girls in China from gender discrimination or poverty, and enabling mothers to raise their daughters, in one small area of rural China.
- Women’s Right Without Frontiers has found our “Save a Widow” Campaign to be highly effective in restoring dignity and providing practical support to destitute or abandoned widows, in our small area of rural China.
- The UNFPA has been found to be complicit with coercive population control in China, as well as a lack of transparency, by past administrations. We believe funding by the U.S. should not have been restored without a thorough investigation regarding whether the UNFPA will be completely transparent in its activities in China, taking careful precautions not to be complicit with coercive population control, but rather, actively to oppose it. This is especially the case, now that there has been a recent determination that the CCP is committing genocide, in large part based on coercive population control practiced against Uyghur minorities in Xinjiang.
- Given the official determination of Genocide, and all its human rights abuses, China has no right to host the 2022 Olympics. We ask the UNCSW to call upon the International Olympic Committee to move the “Genocide Games” to a free country.
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Take action by signing WRWF’s petition against forced abortion in China.
WRWF’s Save a Girl Campaign.
WRWF’s Save a Widow Campaign.
Watch — Stop Forced Abortion – China’s War on Women! Video (4 mins)
Congressional-Executive Commission on China 2020 Report (released in January 2021)
Determination of the Secretary of State on Atrocities in Xinjiang, January 19, 2021
Number of Newborns in China Drops 15% in 2020 as Corona Virus Weighs 2/8/21
‘Their goal is to destroy everyone’: Uighur camp detainees allege systematic rape, February 2, 2021
Chinese Birth Rate Falls to Lowest in Seven Decades 1/17/2020
China imposes forced abortion, sterilization on Uyghurs, investigation shows, June 29, 2020
Xinjiang Hospitals Aborted, Killed Babies Outside Family Planning Limits, Uyghur Obstetrician, August 17, 2020
China forces birth control on Uighurs to suppress population, June 29, 2020
Sterilizations, IUDs, and Mandatory Birth Control: The CCP’s Campaign to Suppress Uyghur Birthrates in Xinjiang. Adrian Zenz, The Jamestown Foundation. June, 2020
On China’s Coercive Family Planning and Forced Sterilization Program in Xinjiang. Press statement, Secretary of State Michael Pompeo, June 29, 2020
China imposes forced abortion, sterilization on Uyghurs, investigation shows, June 30, 2020
The Heritage Foundation – Continued Coercion: China’s Two-Child Policy Threatens Human Rights and Prosperity 3/8/17
China Considers Baby Bonus for Couples to Have Second Child 2/28/17
China Population Crisis: New Two-Child Policy Fails to Yield Major Gains 1/28/17
In Pursuit of Baby Boys, Families Send Samples to HK, Abort Baby Girls 1/17/17
Have China’s Missing Girls Actually Been There All Along? 1/9/17
China 2015 Human Rights Report (released in 2016), p. 55 (23 million abortions a year)
China’s Forbidden Babies Still an Issue 10/28/16
China: Forced Abortion at Six Months; Pregnant Women Told They “Deliberately Broke the Law” 8/28/16
Chinese Government Sources Admit Forced Abortion Continues Under Two-Child Policy 8/9/16
Guangdong Families Told to Have Abortion or Lose Job 7/22/16
Reinventing China’s Abortion Police 5/4/16
Data reveal scale of China abortions 3/15/13
Mr. Vice President, Can You Second Guess Yourself on UNFPA Funding Now? 8/24/11
‘One Child’ Expert Urges Investigation Before UNFPA Funding Resumes 1/30/09
You Are Funding Forced Abortions in China 3/27/09
Family planning policy prevents 400 million births, Xinhua News Agency (11/9/06)
Widows and Elder Suicide in China
Loneliness, Hopelessness and Suicide in later life: A case-control psychological autopsy study in rural China, April 24, 2020
Can China Afford Rapid Aging? July 18, 2016
Suicide Among Elderly Increases, April 8, 2014
China’s Elderly Population to Peak at Half a Billion in 2050
China’s Elderly Population Continues to Rise, With 241 Million Now Over 60
Congressional-Executive Commission on China 2017 Report, “Population Control” section, see p. 158
Ageing China: Changes and Challenges, September 20 2012
China: The Disturbing Trend of Elderly Suicide, October 6, 2016
Suicide Among the Elderly in Mainland China, July 2009
How China’s Rural Elderly Are Being Left Behind and Taking Their Lives, updated, March 11, 2016
Why are so many elderly Asians killing themselves? February 18, 2014 https://www.nbcnews.com/news/world/why-are-so-many-elderly-asians-killing-themselves-n32591
China’s Rural Poor Bear the Brunt of the Nation’s Aging Crisis February 4, 2017
Relying on Whom? Poverty and Consumption Financing of China’s Elderly